Comprehensive Information about Istanbul


It is so diffucult to decide where to start to tell about Istanbul. It is not possible to tell it in just one article, because this is the city whose about lots of books are written. But
Istanbul is a world of civilizations. Istanbul, one of the oldest cities in the world, served as the capital of the Roman Empire between the years of 330 – 395, the Eastern Roman Empire between the years of 395 – 1204 and 1261 – 1453, the Latin Empire between 1204 and 1261 and the Ottoman Empire between 1453 and 1922. In addition, from the year 1517, when the caliphate was transferred to the Ottoman Empire, until 1924, Istanbul became the center of Islam.

Istanbul is the most populous and economically most important city in Turkey. The world’s 34th largest economy city is the most populous city in Europe according to the rankings of municipalities.

Istanbul has been given different names throughout the ages. These city names are associated with different periods of city history. These names are in the historical order, Byzantion, Augusta Antonina, Nova Roma, Constantinople, Konstantiniyya and today’s Istanbul names.


Istanbul is a world city located at the intersection of Europe and Asia with its 300 thousand inhabitants, the urban history is about 3 thousand, the capital city dates back to 1600 years.

The city has been home to different civilizations and cultures throughout the ages, and has preserved the cosmopolitan and metropolitan structure where people from various religions, languages ​​and races live together and has become a unique mosaic in the historical process. Istanbul is one of the rare settlements in the world, which has managed to stay in power and stay in power throughout long periods of time, and is a world capital from past to present.

The history of Istanbul can be divided into five major periods:
Prehistoric period
Byzantion period
The period of Constantinople
Konstantiniyye period
Istanbul period

“If the world was a single country, its capital would be Istanbul.” Napoleon Bonaparte


The climate of Istanbul is a climate with a transition between the Black Sea climate and the Mediterranean climate, so Istanbul’s climate is mild.

The summers of Istanbul are hot and humid; winters are cold, rainy and sometimes snowy. Because of the humidity, the air is warmer than it is warm; cooler than cold. The average temperature in winter is around 2 ° C to 9 ° C, and rain and snowfall are usually observed. Snow falls. In the winter it can snow for a fortnight. The average temperature in summer is around 18 ° C to 28 ° C, and generally rain and flood are observed.

The warmest months are July and August and the average temperature is 23 ° C, the coldest months are January and February and the average temperature is 5 ° C. The average temperature of the year in Istanbul is 13.7 degrees.

Total annual precipitation is 843.9 mm and is seen all year round. 38% of rainfall is in winter, 18% in spring, 13% in summer and 31% in autumn season. Summer is the dryest season, but unlike the Mediterranean climate there is no dry season. Istanbul suffered from dehydration until 1994, but there was no water shortage.

The highest air temperature so far; On July 12, 2000 it was recorded as 40.5 ° C. The lowest air temperature; It was recorded as -16.1 ° C on 9 February 1929.

City Panaromi

Istanbul has a total of 39 counties. 25 of these districts are located on the European side and 14 on the Asian side. The districts of Istanbul are divided into three main regions:
Fatih and Eminönü, the historical peninsula of Old Istanbul (the district of Eminönü was connected to the district of Fatih by a law in 2008. Today, the peninsula constitutes the district of Fatih). Haliç is located on the northern shores of this region. It extends to the Western Walls in the West. The southern border forms the Sea of ​​Marmara Sea. In the east there is the entrance of the Bosphorus.

Beyoğlu and Beşiktaş districts in the north of the Golden Horn are of great importance in terms of history. The palace of the last Ottoman sultans is located in Dolmabahçe Palace Kabataş. Old districts such as Ortaköy and Bebek follow each other along the shores of the Bosphorus. On the two sides of the city there are luxury flats along the Bosphorus.

Uskudar (ancient Chrysopolis) and Kadikoy (ancient Chalcedon) districts in ancient times as a city changed over time and became the district of Istanbul. It is the oldest districts of Istanbul on the Asian side. Nowadays, it has great importance in terms of many modern residential areas and business areas. It hosts one third of the city’s population.

As it goes west and north from the historical districts of Istanbul, there is a great differentiation. The highest skyscrapers and office buildings are on the European side, especially in Levent, Mecidiyeköy and Maslak. The rapid growth of the city in the 20th century led to the beginning of a great migration from east to west. Thus, the squattering in the city has gained a great speed. These buildings, which are made as treasure or private land as a leak, are made in a short time and in low quality. Ankara between Turkey’s largest city, and it is widely held in Izmir. Squatters are largely caused by distorted urbanization.


Most of the metropolitan cities of the world are shaped by a large number of people. The greatest religion in the city is Islam. The religious minorities are the Greek Orthodox Church, the Armenian Apostolic Church and the Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jews. According to the 2000 census; There are 2,691 active mosques, 123 active churches and 26 active synagogues. There are also 109 Muslim cemeteries and 57 non-Muslim cemeteries. Before their number had diminished, there were religious minorities in certain districts. For example, there was an Armenian population in Kumkapı, a Jewish population in Balat and a Greek population in Fener. I. Bartholomew, the spiritual leader of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate, is in the Fener district of Fatih. This patriarchate is the center of the Orthodox sect which forms an important part of Christianity.


Istanbul, Turkey’s largest city and former capital, politically. Due to a crossroads of land and sea trade routes and strategic location it has been the center of economic life in Turkey. The city is also the largest industrial center. It meets 20% of industrial employment in Turkey. It has an industrial area of approximately 38%. Istanbul and surrounding cities in this area; products such as fruit, olive oil, silk, cotton and tobacco. In addition, food industry, textile production, petroleum products, rubber, metal goods, leather, chemical, pharmaceutical, electronic, glass, technological products, machinery, automotive, transportation vehicles, paper and paper products and alcoholic beverages are among the important industrial products of the city. . According to Forbes magazine, the city which has 35 billionaires as of March 2008, ranked fourth in the world.


Istanbul is the country’s medical research center with many hospitals, clinics and laboratories. Most of these facilities have high-tech equipment. These opportunities have an impact on medical tourism and the city is advancing very rapidly in this area. Western European countries such as Britain and Germany send their low-income patients to Istanbul for high-tech medical treatment and operations. Istanbul has become a global stall for laser ophthalmology (eye surgery), hair transplantation and plastic surgery.


Important places

The city walls, which surround Istanbul, were built in the history starting from the 7th century and were overhauled four times by demolition and rebuilding. Its final construction is from 408 AD. II. During the time of Theodosius (408-450), the walls of Istanbul extended to Ayvansaray along the shore of the Golden Horn from Sarayburnu and to Yedikule along the Marmara coast, from Yedikule to Topkapı, and from Topkapı to Ayvansaray. The length of the walls is 22 km. The walls of the Golden Horn are 5.5 km, black 6.5 km and Marmara Walls 9 km.

The land walls consist of three parts. Trench, outer wall, inner wall. The ditches have been agricultural areas today. Adjacent to the wall and 50 m. There are 96 bushes, many of which are broken and cracked. These are 10 meter high, mostly square planned and 25 meters high.

Dolmabahçe Palace

Dolmabahçe Palace is a palace located between Kabataş and Beşiktaş on the coastline between Karaköy and Sarıyer. Dolmabahçe was named after the sea. Borrowed from external states for construction. The area where Dolmabahçe Palace is located today was a big bay of the Bosphorus, where the ships of the Ottoman Captain-i Derya were anchored until four centuries ago. Dolmabahçe palace still preserves its old beauty. This bay, where traditional maritime ceremonies were held, became a marsh in time. The bay, which was started to be filled in the 17th century, was converted into a “hasbahçe” for the rest and entertainment of the sultans. The pavilions and pavilions of various periods in this garden were called Besiktas Sahilsarayı.

Haliç (Golden Horn)

The Golden Horn is a bay of Istanbul. The word meaning of the Golden Horn means the bay. According to Greek myth; The Megarans named their king the Golden Horn for Keroessa, the mother of White. In the Byzantine period, colonization started here. It was also the maritime center of the Byzantine Empire. The walls along the shore were built to protect the city from a sea fleet attack. To prevent the entry of unwanted ships at the entrance of the Golden Horn, there was a large chain across the city extending to the northeastern tip of the old Galata tower. This tower was severely damaged by the Latin crusaders in 1204 during the 4th Crusade. But the Genoese people built a new tower. This tower is called the famous Galata Tower 1348 Christea Turris (Tower of Christ: The Tower of Christ). The Ottoman Empire was a region where intensive Bektashi populations lived. Many of the Bektashi dervish lodges such as Karaağaç Tekke, Karyağdı Baba Tekke, Giresunlu Tekke were in this region.

Beylerbeyi Palace

Beylerbeyi palace was built between 1861-1865 by Sarkis Balyan by Sultan Abdülaziz in the place of an old wooden beach palace. Beylerbeyi Palace, which was built as a summer palace, was placed in a place to watch the strait. The palace dazzles with its beautiful embroidery. Although the architecture of the palace was highly influenced by the European architecture, the Ottoman decorations were quite comfortable. The interior of the palace is decorated with colorful tiles and furniture and valuables brought from Europe. Especially on the ceilings and walls of the palace, ship paintings attract attention.

Topkapi Palace

Topkapı Palace is the oldest and largest palace in Istanbul, which has survived to the present day. It is the well-known acropolis hill of Istanbul, the location of the Golden Horn, Bosphorus and the Marmara Sea. It is a complex with 700.000 m2 private land surrounded by 5 km long city walls at the most extreme point of the historical Istanbul triangle peninsula. Topkapi Palace, which is a very small city, has been used for more than 500 years. When the sultan moved to the newly built Dolmabahçe Palace, the palace was left without care for a long time. The palace was restored to its former glory through the restoration of the Republican Period. The palace used to be a museum at the moment presents the belongings of the Sultan. Among the most valuable pieces of the museum collection are the cardigans of Muhammad, female, footprint and sword. These objects were brought from Cairo during the reign of Yavuz Sultan Selim. Another valuable piece is the world-famous Kaşıkçı Elması. Topkapı Hançeri is another valuable item exhibited in the museum.

Yıldız Palace

For the first time, Yıldız Palace was built by Sultan III. It was built for Selim’s mother Mihrişah Sultan, especially the Ottoman Sultan II. It was used as the main palace of the Ottoman Empire at the time of Abdülhamit, and is now a palace in Beşiktaş District. Dolmabahçe Palace is not a single building, starting from the coast of the Marmara Sea to the northwest and the entire line up to the ridge to the back of a garden and palace settled in the woods, pavilions, management, protection, service structures and parks.

Ciragan Palace

Istanbul, Besiktas district, the historical palace located on Ciragan Street. The most beautiful places of the Golden Horn and Bosphorus were dedicated to the sultans and important people for their palaces and pavilions. Many of them have disappeared over time. Çırağan, a large palace, was burned in 1910. An old wooden palace was built by Sultan Abdülaziz in 1871 and was built by Serkis Balyan. In four years the building had 4 million underneath and the partition and ceiling were covered with wood and the walls were covered with marble. Exquisite examples of stone workmanship columns were richly furnished, spaces would be completed. The rooms were decorated with rare carpets, furnishings with gold gilding and pearl pencils. Çırağan, like other palaces of the Bosphorus, was the venue for many important meetings.


Please see our other information pages about Istanbul.

Topkapı Palace, Base of a Civilization.


Five Star Hotels in Istanbul

Magnificent Architecture: Blue Mosque

Istanbul sights, historical and cultural sights, Where to go in Istanbul? This article gives information about all the point of Istanbul travel.

To see our tours in Istanbul, Please click the links below.

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